Main Article Content
Conflict between pastoralist and wildlife in Tanzania becomes the issues of discussion by different stakeholders at different levels, this study state general objective that assesses the effects of conflict between pastoralist and wildlife conservation in Muhesi Game Reserve (MGR). Data collection methods included interview, documentary review, Focus Group Discussion (FGD)) and observations. A sample of 98 respondents was surveyed. Analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics (chi square) for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data. The study revealed that, the main existing conflict was pastoralist-wildlife conservation conflict apart of other conflicts. Results further revealed that major causes of the conflict includes grazing cattle in game reserves, shortage of land for grazing, large number of cattle, low knowledge in relation to wildlife conservation and legal framework related to the management of wildlife. Study revealed that, conflict between pastoralist and wildlife conservation posed effects to the surrounding community, wildlife game reserve, pastoralists and wildlife managers. In community, it leads deterioration of relationship among the community members, wildlife managers and communities surrounding the villages. Pastoralist reported loss of their life also cattle through forfeitures and death. In game reserves, a mainly effect revealed was decrease of ecosystem functions. To address the conflict and its effects, conservation education and population controls are taken into account. However, there are challenges facing conflict management includes scarcity of resources, cultural barriers, corruption and political interest. Study concluded that pastoralist-wildlife conflicts exist and should not be ignored. The study recommends that, in order to manage the conflict and their effects; the Central Government in collaboration with relevant stakeholders should establish proper village land use plan which will accommodate different land users, also controlling immigrant of pastoralist.
Nyamwamu RO. Implications of human-wildlife conflict on food security among smallholder agro-pastoralists: Acase of smallholder maize (Zea mays) farmers in Laikipia county. Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;4(2):43-48.
Ocholla GO, Koske J, Asoka GW, Bunyasi, MM, Pacha O, Omondi SH, Mirer C. Assessment of traditional methods used by th Samburu Pastoral Community in Human Wildlife Conflict Management. Department of Environmental Planning and Manage-ment, Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Nyamwamu RO, Mwangi JG, Ombati JM. Untapped potential of wildlife agricultural extension mitigation strategies in influencing the extent of human-wildlife conflict: A case of smallholder agro-pastoralists in Laikipia County, Department of Agricultural Education & Extension, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya; 2015.
Otuoma J. The effects of wildlife-livestock-Human Interactions on Habitat in the Meru Conservation Area, Kenya. International Livestock Research Institute. 2004;49.
Syombua MJ. An analysis of human-wildlife conflicts in tsavo west – Amboseliagro-ecosystem using an inte-grated geospatial approach: A case study of Taveta District. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Dryland Resource Management University of Nairobi. 2013; 207.
Odhiambo MO. Conflicts in Ngorongoro District: Causes, consequences and possible solutions a report of a consultancy commissioned jointly by ERETO Ngorongoro Pastoralist Project (ERETO-NPP) and the Ngorongoro District Local Government and Managed by Ngorongoro NGO Network (N GONET); 2008.
Djoghlaf A. A Good Practice Guide Pastoralism, Nature Conservation and Development, Secretariat of the Conven-tion on Biological Diversity, Montreal; 2010.
United Republic of Tanzania [URT]. Livestock development sector programme, ministry livestock and fisheries develop-ment, Dares salaam, Tanzania; 2011.
Isdori S. Land use conflicts between local communities and management of Mkungunero Game Reserve, Simanjaro Tanzania. A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfilment Resorce Economics of Sokoine University of Agriculture. Morogoro, Tanzania. 2016;95.
Tanzania Natural Resources Forum [TNRF] Integrating Pastoralist Livelihoods and Wildlife Conservation? Options for Land Use and Conflict Resolution in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District. Dares salaam, Tanzania. 2010;32.
Pkalya R, Mohamud AIM, Karimi M. Conflict in Northern Kenya; A Focus on the Internally Displaced Conflict Victims in Northern Kenya. ITDG-EA; 2003.
Mkutu K. Pastoralism and conflict in the Horn of Africa. Africa. University of Bradford. 2010;45.
Reid RS. Can pastoral people and livestock enrich savanna landscapes? Savannas of our birth: People, wildlife, and change in East Africa (1st ed.), University of California Press, JSTOR. 2012;122–145.
Sumay G. Human-wildlife interactions simanjiro photo voice project. Colorado State University. 2012;53.
Masanja GF. Human population growth and wildlife extinction in Ugalla ecosystem, Western Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Development Studies. 2014;5(2):192-217.
Homewood K, Coast E, Kiruswa S, Serneels S, Thompson M, Trench P. Maasai pastoralists: Diversification and poverty. LSE Research Online; 2006.
Kideghesho JR, Msuya TS. Managing the wildlife protected areas in the face of global economic recession, HIV/AIDS Pandemic, Political Instability and Climate Change: Experience of Tanzania. Intech. 2012;31.
Shemwetta DTK, Kideghesho JR. Human-wildlife conflicts in Tanzania: What research and extension could offer to conflict resolution, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation University of Sokoine, MOROGORO, Tanzania; 2000.
Creswell J. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach. (2nd Edition). SAGE Publication, London. 2003;26.
Axinn W, Pearce LD. Mixed method data collection strategies. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Human-wildlife conflict in Africa causes, consequence and management strategies, Rome, Italy; 2009.
Kaswamila A. Human-wildlife conflicts in Monduli District, Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2010;5(4):199–207.
[Accessed at 16/9/2016]
Simbarashe M. Land: Efforts needed to end conflicts between farmers and Cattleelders; 2012.
Available:http://www.dairlynews.co.tz/index.php/ features/popular features/5820-land-efforts needed- to-end-conflict-between-farmers-and cattle-helders.
Chachage C. Land acquisition and accumulation in Tanzania: The case of Morogoro, Iringa and Pwani regions; 2010.
Available:http://www.commercialpressure onland.org/research-paper/land-acquisation-and accumulation-Tanzania.
Fratkin E. Age-sets, households and the organization of Pastoral production: The Ariaal, Samburu and Rendille of Northern Kenya. Research in Economic Anthropo-logy. 2008;8:295-314.
URT Environmental and social impacts assessment for the proposed lake Victoria Kahama Shinyanga water supply scheme extension to Nzega Tabora and Igunga, Ministry of Water and Irrigation through Kashwasa, Dar es salaam; 2015.
Hariohay KM, Fyumagwa RD, Kideghesho JR, Røskaft E. Assessing crop and livestock losses along the Rungwa- Katavi Wildlife Corridor, South-Western Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2017;9(8): 273-283.
Galvin KA. Transitions: Pastoralists living with change. Annual Review of Anthropo-logy.2009;38(1):185–198.
Mary AL, Majule AE. Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on agriculture in semi-arid areas of Tanzania: A of case Manyoni District in Singida Region, Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2009;3:206-208.
URT National sample of agriculture 2007/2008, Regional report- Singida region, Tanzania; 2012.
Looloitai LJ. Land policy and the Maasai in Tanzania: The demise of Pastoralism? partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the degree of master of arts in development studies Major The Hague, The Netherlands. 2014;55.
Kipuri N, Sorensen C. Poverty, pastoralism and policy in ngorongoro, lessons learned from the EROTO I Ngorongoro Pastoralist Project with implication for Pastoral development and the policy debate. EROTO/IIED; 2008.
IUCN- World Conservation Union- Red List of Threated species; 2003.
Siex KS, Struhsaker TT. Colobus monkeys and coconuts: Astudy of perceived human–wildlife conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology. 1999;36(6):1009-1020.
United Republic of Tanzania. Basic Data for Livestock and Fisheries Sectors, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development Tanzania Mainland. Dar essalaam, Tanzania; 2013.
Kideghesho JR, Nyahongo JW, Hassan SN, Tarimo TC, Mbije NE. Factors and ecological impacts of wildlife habitat destruction in the Serengeti ecosystem in northern Tanzania. AJEAM-RAGEE. 2006; 11:917-932.
Rungwa/Kizigo/Muhesi Game Reserve, Anti-poachingreport, Manyoni- Singida. 2015;29.
ESPA. Realising the promise of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas; 2017.
Marera hunting safari company report. Hunting report. Manyoni, Singida; 2016.
Mayengo G, Bwagalilo F, Kalumanga VE. Human wildlife conflicts to communities surrounding Mikumi National Parks in Tanzania: A case of selected villages. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB). 2017;2(4).
Nyhus PJ. Human–wildlife conflict and coexistence. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. Research Report No. 03.5, Mkuki na Nyota Publishers. 2016;41:143–71.
Schieltz JM, Rubenstein DI. Evidence based review: Positive versus negative effects of livestock grazing on wildlife. What do we really know? Environ. Res. Lett. 11.
Research Report No. 03.5, Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.
Campbell K, Nelson V, Loibooki M. Sustainable use of wildland resources: Ecological, economic and social interac-tions. London: An analysis of illegal hunting of wildlife in Serengeti National Park. Final Technical Report, DFID; 1999.
Rungwa/Kizigo/Muhesi Game Reserve. Financial report, Manyoni- Singida. 2016; 25.
URT. National Sample Census of Agri-culture Volume Vm: Regional Report: – Singida Region; 2007/2008.
URT. Wildlife conservation and protection in Tanzania, Dar es salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
URT. Livestock sector development strategy, Dar essalaam; 2010.
MGR report Muhesi game reserve Annul reports. Manyoni, Singida; 2010.
Mung’ong’o C, Mwamfupe D. Poverty and changing livelihoods of migrant Maasai pastoralists in Morogoro and Kilosa districts, Tanzania. Research on Poverty Alleviation; 2003.
Sulemani I, Olav E, Adnoy T, Mtengeti E, Mushi S. The role of indigenous knowledge and perceptions of pastoral communities on traditional grazing management in North- Western in Tanzania. African Journal of Agriculture Research. 2012;7: 5537-5547.
Kideghesho RJ. Wildlife conservation and local land use conflicts in Western Serengeti Corridor, Tanzania. Thesis for the degree philosophiae doctor. Norwegian University of Science and Technology Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology Department of Biology. 2006; 225.